Just the other day I bought my daughter a chalkboard (pictured below). It was a great price, $14.99 at Hobby Lobby and I had a coupon. I was shocked that a chalkboard this size was priced so low. I highly recommend going there for your chalkboard needs. Chalk itself is priced good as well.
Now, I'm no artist and I can see that my handwriting didn't look too phenomenal here. But whatever, my daughter still learned something. She's 2 years old and she now knows all about waning crescent and waxing gibbous moon phases (plus all the other ones).
So, you'll need a chalkboard and some white chalk. You could also use a black piece of paper and a white colored pencil if you don't have a chalkboard. There's just something about chalkboards that really says "school" to me.
First I wrote "Phases of the Moon" across the top of the board. Then I drew a circle that I wanted to draw my moons around for positioning. I drew the outlines of each first, starting with waning crescent. In case my handwriting is so bad that you totally can't see, there's: waning crescent, last quarter, waning gibbous, full moon, waxing gibbous, first quarter, waxing crescent and new moon. Capital letters are also probably better since they're names.
Here's the picture I modeled ours after right here
Then after I had all their outlines drawn I colored them in appropriately with the white chalk, using the eraser as needed to help with shaping and outside the lines mistakes.
Then for the information for the lesson that I was telling my daughter while we looked at this chalk board lesson I used these tidbits
This was a very productive lesson that I'm sure most preschool age children would enjoy. A new way to use something (in this case, the chalkboard) is always kind of interesting to kids.